History of Robotics Research and Development of Japan2003BusinessAnthropomorphic Robot Hand - Gifu Hand III

Haruhisa KawasakiGifu University
Tetsuya MouriGifu University
Satoshi ItoGifu University
Hisayuki ShimomuraDainichi Co., Ltd.
Toshinori MatunamiGifugear Co., Ltd.
Noburu HanadaNikkoautome Co. Ltd.
Teruaki AzumaNitta Coporation
The developed robot hand is the world's first anthropomorphic robot hand that has almost same number of joints and degrees-of-freedom (DOF) as the human hand and is equipped with all servomotors within the hand frame. The robot hand has a thumb and four fingers with 20 joints and 16 DOF like a human hand, and the ratios of the link length of thumb to each finger are near to that of the human hand. Two axes of the first joint (adduction and abduction) and second joint (flection and extension) cross at one point and are orthogonal to each other by an asymmetry differential gear mechanism. The fourth joint (distal interphalangeal joint) of the finger is driven in conjunction with the third joint (proximal interphalangeal joint) by a four-link parallel linkage. The hand has high thumb opposability to each finger, which is indispensable for skillful manipulation. These transmission mechanisms and finger placements with thumb opposability realize movement that is similar to the human hand. In addition, the frequency response properties of the fingers are superior to 6Hz or more, close to the ability for human tapping (approximately 5.5Hz). Since each joint is driven by a motor that is built-in to the hand frame, the developed robot hand is largely downsized in comparison with wire-driven robot hands in which motors are located outside of the hand frame. The weight of the developed hand is 1.4 kg, light enough to allow it to be set at the tip of industrial robot arms to perform work. Each motor can be controlled by the joint angle sensor with a motor encoder. A distributed tactile sensor with detecting point 859, developed for the Gifu Hand, can be inserted in the palm and finger pads. In addition, a commercial six-axes force sensor can be mounted on each fingertip, allowing construction of force-feedback control systems. This product is very useful as a research and development tool for object manipulation by robot hands. 8th Technical Innovations Awards by RSJ in 2003 The Prizes for Science and Technology, Ministry Award by MEXT-JAPAN in 2006
人間型ロボットハンド Gifu Hand III
Anthropomorphic robot hand - Gifu Hand III
Gifu Hand用分布型触覚センサ
Distributed tactile sensor for Gifu Hand


Correspondence papers

H. Kawasaki, T. Komatsu, M. Suda, and K. Uchiyama:Development of Anthropomorphic Robot Hand driven by built-in Servo-motors

Proc. of ICAM'98, Okayama, pp. 215-220,1998.

H. Kawasaki, Tsuneo Komatsu, Kazunao Uchiyama, and Takashi Kurimoto:Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robot Hand with Distributed Tactile Sensor: Gifu Hand I

Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on System, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. II-782 - II-787, Tokyo, 1999.

H. Kawasaki, and T. Komatsu:Mechanism Design of Anthropomorphic Robot: Gifu Hand I

Jour. of Robotics and Mechatronic, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 269-273, 1999.

H. Kawasaki, K. Uchiyama, T. komatu:Anthropomorphic Robot Hand with Distributed Tactile Sensor Aiming at Platform of Robotics Researchs

Trans. of JRM, Vol. 6, No. 651-C, pp. 3672-3678, 2000 (In Japanese).
(Link to Cinii Trans. of JRM, Vol. 6, No. 651-C (

H. Kawasaki, T. Komatu, and K. Uchiyama:Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robot Hand with Distributed Tactile Sensor: Gifu Hand II

IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 296-303, 2002.

H. Kawasaki, T. Mouri, J. Takai and S. Ito:Grasping of Unknown Object Imitating Human Grasping Reflex

CD-ROM Preprints of 15th Triennial World Congress of the IFAC, 2002.

T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki, K. Yoshikawa, J. Takai, and S. Ito:Anthropomorphic Robot Hand: Gifu Hand II

Proc. of Int. Conf. ICCAS2002, pp. 1288-1293, 2002.

H. Kawasaki, T. Mouri and S. Ito:Toward Next Stage of Kinematic Humanoid Hand

CD-ROM of World Automation Congress, 10th International Symposium on Robotics and Applications (WAC2004-ISORA2004), Invited presentation, 2004.

Related papers

1) T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki, S. Ito: Unknown Object Grasping Strategy Imitating Human Grasping Reflex for Anthropomorphic Robot Hand", Trans. of JRM Vol.71, No.705-C,pp.1646-1653, 2005 (In Japanease).

2) T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki, and K. Umebayashi: "Developments of New Anthropomorphic Robot Hand and its Master Slave System", Proc. of IEEE IRS/RSJ Int. Conf. on Interlligent Robots and Systems (IROS2005),pp. 3474-3479, 2005.

3) T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki and S. Ito: "Unknown Object Grasping Strategy Imitating Human Grasping Reflex for Anthropomorphic Robot Hand",Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.1-11, 2007.

4) T. Mouri, T. Endoa, H. Kawasaki: "Anthropomorphic Robot Hand and its Application, Proc. of EUROMEC Colloquirum 515, Advanced Applications And Perspectives of Multibody System Dynamics", 2010.

5) T. Mouri, T. Endo, H. Kawasakia: "Review of Gifu Hand and Its Application", Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: An International Journal, Vol. 39, Issue 2, Special Issue: Special Issue on Multibody System Dynamics, pp. 210 - 228, 2011.(

Related Article